Depending on the author, there may be as few as three species (Petranka, 1998) or as many as thirteen different species (Conant and Collins, 1991). Status: Most commonly encountered woodland salamander in southern half of state. Mus., Batr. Presumably, these eggs are typically laid underground, due to the low numbers of nests observed in the wild. Northern Slimy Salamander. Though they can be found surface active during the summer, this species seems to be most active in the spring and fall months. This period of activity is similar to that seen in Long-Tailed Salamanders (Eurycea longicauda). Natural History: This completely terrestrial salamander can be found in burrows, under rocks, in and under logs, and in rotten tree stumps in spring and autumn, but disappears deeper into soil during summer and winter. Habitat: Eastern deciduous forests under bark or other debris on ground, especially on hillsides. Hatchlings have light ventral surfaces and are uniformly dark on the top, with some pigment-free spots. They lay between 30 and 130 eggs, which later hatch in early winter. However, Jefferson's Salamanders are more robust, lighter in coloration, and lack the obvious white spots that many Northern Slimy Salamanders have. Distribution Notes: Roughly the southern half of Illinois. eNature.com. Relatively resilient to timber harvesting; however clear-cuts have a negative impact on populations. Northern Slimy Salamander Plethodon glutinosus Turkey Run, Parke Co., Indiana Collected by W.L. The female is tasked with guarding the nest and her eggs hatch after 2 to 3 months. Scientific Name: Plethodon glutinosus Size: 4-8 inches (10.16-20.32 cm) in length Status: Abundant . Species: glutinosus is Latin and means "full of glue or very gluey". Description: Moderately large and robust species. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia. For permissions information, contact the Illinois Natural History Survey. The Northern Slimy Salamander gets its name from the secretions it emits from its skin glands when it is handled roughly or feels threatened. The larval stage is completed within the egg, and hatching occurs 2-3 months after the eggs are deposited. 1818. Description: Medium-sized (up to 17 cm TL) salamander with black or bluish black back and uniform gray-black belly, sometimes with light flecks. They are laid in spherical clusters of 16-33 and are often suspended from the ceilings of natural cavities. Breeding of Northern Slimy Salamanders occurs on land, where the male drops a spermatophore after a series of courtship behaviors. Copious, adhesive skin secretions provide protection from predators. Head relatively large. The Northern Slimy Salamander (Plethodon glutinosus) has no recognized subspecies. There are no known major threats to its conservation in Indiana. It is suspected that they are sexually mature at 5 years of age and that the females only breed every other year. Northern Slimy Salamanders are superficially similar to Jefferson's Salamanders (Ambystoma jeffersonianum), a species with which they share habitat throughout southern Indiana. The embryos hatched by May of the following year. Northern slimy salamanders are believed to breed in the spring and again in the fall. The northern slimy salamander lives on wooded hillsides under rocks. Cave Salamander 1 4. Adults of this species are medium-sized black salamanders with white speckling. Washington, 33: 131).  Most subspecies elevated to species by Highton et al., (1989,  Illinois Biological Monographs 57: 1-153). They are rarely discovered in the open during daylight hours. Eggs are probably laid the next spring. Transferred to Cylindrosoma by Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril (1854, Erp. After hatching from eggs, Slimy Salamanders emerge as small salamanders. Champaign, IL 61820. Records for the northernmost area of the state may be erroneous. Etymology: Genus: plethore is Greek meaning "fullness or full of", odon is Greek for "teeth". Unlike most other salamanders, open water is not needed for the laying of eggs. Batr. more >> Green Salamander Aneides aeneus. Northern Slimy Salamander Plethodon glutinosus Turkey Run, Parke Co., Indiana Collected by W.L. Bluff River Cave, Alabama, October 29, 2011; Mama Salamander (Northern Slimy Salamander), guarding her eggs. 1. Northern Slimy Salamanders occur throughout the state, Cumberland Plateau Salamanders are generally found west of the New and Kanawha rivers, and White-spotted Slimy Salamanders occur along the West Virginia/Virginia border in the eastern panhandle. The salamander's larval stage lasts for about two to three years. Coll. They are common along bluffs surrounding streams and rivers, though they may be found far from water. It belongs to the family Plethodontidae, which is the world's most diverse family of salamanders. : 92).  Emended to Plethodon glutinosum by Gray (1850, Cat. Breeding of P. glutinosus takes place in the spring, and courtship consists of the males performing a sort of dance to attract the females' attention. The young hatch in around three months, after which they grow steadily. Historical versus Current Distribution. Northern Slimy Salamanders typically inhabit rocky woodlands. Nomenclatural History: Transferred to Plethodon and emmended to glutinosus by Tschudi (1838, Classif. Spotted Dusky Salamander — LIFER 6 9. Northern Slimy Salamanders are restricted to the central and northeastern states from Illinois to New York with isolates further northeast and south into Georgia and Alabama. It is quick and slimy. Herpetological Review 44:270. Referring to the sticky skin secretions. White dots are present throughout the dorsum, and they increase along the sides, where they often form wide white bands. Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. more >> Zigzag Salamander Plethodon d. dorsalis. Northern Slimy Salamander eggs are whitish with a jelly surrounding when laid. Ventral coloration is black, except under the tail and feet, where it is gray. They instead develop directly into their entirely terrestrial adult form. Subspecies: No subspecies currently recognized. Restricted to Princeton, New Jersey by Dunn (1926, Salamanders of the Family Plethodontidae:138). Collins. 5 March 2016 - A few field pics from our first round of sampling in the Vermilion River Conservation Opportunity Area including the first Silvery Salamander of the year and a cluster of Wood Frog egg … Eggs hatch in late summer and autumn. Type Locality: Not stated. Slimy salamander hatchlings do not go through an aquatic larval stage. 1(1):348-359. The Prairie Research Institute’s Illinois Natural History Survey provides a species distribution map and more natural history information.species distribution map and … Size: 2 ½ – 4 inches. Brooding females were observed in rock crevices in a southern Illinois cave during October and November. INHS Herpetology Collection Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Females typically lay their eggs in the fall in streams attached to submerged rocks. Species Status: Common. Conant, R. and J. T . Plethodon sequoyah Highton, 1989 Sequoyah Slimy Salamander. : 39). They are laid in spherical clusters of 16-33 and are often suspended from the ceilings of natural cavities. Northern Zigzag Salamander — LIFER-1. David A. Beamer 1 Michael J. Lannoo 2. Fun Facts: Reproduction: Slimy salamanders lay their eggs on land under logs or in underground cavities. Adult male with a light circular hedonic gland under chin. In dry conditions, it may retreat to the interior of rotten logs or under ground. Our display is located in the Beecher Lab in Wilderness Walk hall. 1998. Biol. Northern Slimy Salamanders feed on a variety of terrestrial invertebrates, with ants and beetles making up a large part of the diet in many populations. During the breeding season male adult Slimy Salamanders, unlike females, have a large mental gland on the chin, which they use to stimulate the female. Female red salamanders are capable of storing sperm for long periods of time and may lay eggs several months after mating. Females lay clutches of four to 12 eggs in a moist area, which she guards, often neglecting food for the period until they hatch. Northern Slimy's and other Plethodontid salamanders are neat when it comes to reproduction because, unlike many other amphibian species, they don't require standing water to lay their eggs. It belongs to the larger P. glutinosus species complex, which contains many morphologically similar species across the eastern United States. Within Alabama, Southeastern Slimy Salamanders are found generally to the south of the Coosa River and, across southern portions of its range, east of the Alabama River and Mobile-Tensaw Delta. Habitat: Heavy forested areas, open shale-covered embankments and hillsides adjacent to dense forest. Descriptions of several species of North American Amphibia, accompanied with observations. Northern Dusky Salamander — LIFER 4+ 8. Amph. Status: Northern Slimy Salamander (Plethodon glutinosus) is a fairly large woodland salamander, black with numerous white spots.Genetic work on slimy salamander (sensu lato) determined that it was actually a complex of thirteen cryptic, allopatric species, essentially identical in external appearance.The populations from Maryland are considered P. glutinosus. Long-tailed Salamander 1 6. Necker, May 30, 1932 CAS HERP 1472-1479. Gén., 9: 80).  First use of trinomial by Dunn (1920, Proc. Spotted Salamander embryos are host to one of the only known occurrences of animal-microbe symbiosis . The eggs hatch a month or two later, depending on water temperature. Females deposit and brood clusters of 10-20 large white eggs in … Come visit the Nature Museum, see these marvelous specimens in person, and help us celebrate our natural heritage! Similar Species: Blue-spotted salamander. Original Name: Salamandra glutinosa Green, 1818. Carl D. Anthony 1. Similar Species: Ravine and Redback salamanders. Brodman, R. 2003. 1. Mole Salamander — LIFER 1 7. Third Edition, Expanded. The Rough Greensnake is a The female then guards the eggs until hatching. These eggs will usually hatch around October and young do not have an aquatic larval stage. Scientific Name: Plethodon glutinosus. They often seek shelter under a variety of cover including bark, logs, and rocks. Petranka, J. W. 1998. It is nocturnal. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 112:43-54. Check out the IDNR’s Wild About Illinois Salamanders! The northern slimy salamander is the only species present in our area. ... "Northern Slimy Salamander" (On-line). This species belongs to a complex of similar species that is found throughout eastern North America. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington D.C. Maps may include both verified and unverified observations. Key Characters: White or silvery dots and flecks scattered over the body, commonly concentrated along lower sides; nasolabial grooves present. Adult Northern Slimy Salamanders are likely to establish and defend small territories from other slimy salamanders and other terrestrial salamander species (Cunningham et al. This makes them different from other amphibians because they skip the larval stage. Amphibians and Reptiles from Twenty-three Counties of Indiana. Original Description: Green, J. Northern Slimy Salamander eggs are whitish with a jelly surrounding when laid. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, IN. It prowls the forest floor at night feeding on worms and arthropods. Southern Two-lined Salamander 2 10. Costal grooves 14-15. Additional Information: True to its name, when annoyed the Northern Slimy Salamander releases a sticky white goo from its tail which is next to impossible to get off a person’s skin. A record from “Abingdon, Knox County, IL” collected by Garman (no date); CAS-SUA 597, is doubtful as this is well north and west of the NW limits of the species range. Brit. Natural Resources Building Klueth, S. and J. M. 2013. Northern Slimy Salamander Plethodon glutinosus Background The northern slimy salamander is a medium-large sized member of the “lungless” salamander family (Plethodontidae). Northern Slimy Salamander. Sequoyah slimy salamanders (Plethodon sequoyah) were previously considered a form of Rich Mountain salamanders (P.ouachitae; Dundee, 1947; Pope and Pope, 1951) or northern slimy salamanders (P.glutinosus; Blair and Lindsay, 1965). Northern Slimy Salamanders can be found throughout most of southern Indiana, though they are less common in the southwestern bottomlands. Northern Slimy Salamanders have a more abbreviated period of activity than other plethodontids in Indiana and are active from April to October. The larval stage of … Salamanders of the United States and Canada. They breed annually, depositing about 6-36 eggs under logs or dirt in the summer or early fall. Houghton Mifflin, New York, NY. The small activity range of the species also makes it a victim of predation by a number of snakes that occur in the geographical range or P. glutinosus (Highton 1956). Our display is located in … Plethodon glutinosus (Green, 1818) Northern Slimy Salamander. Record verification occurs periodically as time allows. Grad. 1. 4 to 12 eggs are laid under rocks, logs or in burrows. Similar Species: Blue-spotted Salamander, Jefferson Salamander, Silvery Salamander, and Small-mouthed Salamander are similar overall, but these species lack nasolabial grooves. See Key to Illinois Salamanders for help with identification. They prefer to lay their egg clutches in moist areas but on land such as under rotting logs, large rocks, in caves, etc. Size: 5 – 7 inches. Email the Web Administrator with questions or comments. Oviparous (egg laying) Clutch Size: 4 to 12 eggs: Incubation Period: Around 3 months: Reproductive Age: 2 to 3 years of age: Average Lifespan: 5.5 years in captivity: IUCN Conservation Status: Least Concern The Southeastern Slimy Salamander is widely distributed across the northern half of Florida through southern portions of Alabama and southwestern Georgia. Historical versus Current Distribution. Life history: Reproduction occurs in the summer, with eggs being attached to the roof of an underground cavity or rock crevice. Species Status: Common. 2009; Mitchell & Gibbons 2010). Slimy salamanders will occasionally consume smaller salamanders, including individuals of their own species. Females deposit and brood clusters of 10-20 large white eggs in damp rotten logs, burrows, or rock crevices. Instead, the 13 to 34 eggs (average 16-17) are usually deposited in decaying logs or attached underneath rocks. If gooed and it gets dirty, the dirty spots will have to eventually wear off. Northern Slimy Salamander — LIFER 1 3. They can also be found along small rocky streams. A protective coating on their eggs inhibits oxygen diffusion but a photosynthetic algae lives in the egg and provides the developing salamander oxygen via photosynthesis. Etymology: Plethodon – pletho (Greek) for crowd, multitude, fullness; odon (Greek) tooth; glutinosus – (Latin) viscous, sticky. The spring-laid eggs hatch around August. Females will attend the eggs through development, 2 -3 months. Tiny hatchlings, which resemble adults in form and color, grow to become the largest completely terrestrial salamanders in Illinois. Maturity is not reached for two to three years. The female picks up the spermatophore shortly thereafter. Their range extends further north on the western border of the state where they inhabit deep, rocky gorges. Adults reach total lengths of 5-7 inches. White spotted slimy salamanders lay six to thirty six eggs in an underground retreat such as underneath or within a log, or in a moist crevasse during late spring. The female guards her clutch until hatching which takes about 3 months. The young hatch directly into miniature adults. All rights reserved. Food: Northern Slimy Salamanders feed on terrestrial invertebrates. Copious, adhesive skin secretions provide protection from predators. Marbled Salamander — LIFER 7 2. © 2018–2020 University of Illinois Board of Trustees. Minton, S. A. Jr. 2001. Newly hatched Slimy Salamanders apparently do not emerge from their hidden retreats until the following spring. Status in Tennessee: Appears to be common in Great Smoky Mountains and in parts of its range. Breeding is probably most common in the fall in Indiana, though some individuals may breed in the spring. The female deposits 10 to 20 eggs in rotten logs or rock crevices in early summer. The slimy salamander is vulnerable to parasitism by some nematode worms, particularly when guarding an egg clutch, due to poor nutrition. The black dorsal color fades to gray on the tail. Northern Slimy Salamander Plethodon glutinosus. Necker, May 30, 1932 CAS HERP 1472-1479. Tail long and circular in cross-section. Soc. The female guards the eggs until they hatch in late summer or early fall. website to learn about the northern slimy salamander. Average total lengths of hatchlings in Indiana are about 0.5-1 inch long. Tiny hatchlings, which resemble adults in form and color, grow to become the largest completely terrestrial salamanders in Illinois. The slimy salamander complex is a group of large eastern woodland salamanders, with adults commonly reaching lengths of up to 6.75 inches (17 cm). Illinois Natural History Survey • Prairie Research Institute. Plethodon glutinosus (Northern Slimy Salamander) Geographic Distribution. This is a relatively widespread species that is quite abundant where it occurs. Northern Slimy Salamander: Four-toed Salamander: Spring Salamander: Midland Mud Salamander: Northern Red Salamander: Green Salamander: Two-lined Salamander: Longtail Salamander: ... Eggs are attached singly to the undersides of rocks or other structures in concealed locations and may be submerged underwater. The underside of the chin can often have light spots. Hatchlings emerge from the eggs in about three months, having no aquatic stage, like many other salamander species. Adult female slimy salamanders lay 4-12 eggs in late spring or summer in cavities under logs or rocks, or occasionally under moss or dead leaves. Historical versus Current Distribution - The geographic distribution of northern dusky Salamanders (Desmognathus fuscus) extends in the United States southwest from Maine, through New England, New York, and Pennsylvania to Virginia, then west to southern and eastern Ohio, southeastern Indiana, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, and western North Carolina (Petranka, 1998). Females will remain with the young until they disperse from the nest in 2-3 weeks. Spec. This salamander gets its name from a glue-like secretion it emits from glands in its skin as a … Females lay 15-35 eggs in rotting logs or under stones and brood the eggs until hatching. Eastern Newt 2 5. 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